Now showing 1 - 10 of 13
  • Publication
    LASER ABLATION OF PAINT COATINGS IN INDUSTRY
    A comparison is made between the laser and sandblasting methods for removing paint from industrial facilities. The advantages of laser ablation are discussed. The possibilities of laser paint removal systems - stationary and moving - are shown. The main factors influencing the laser ablation process and the indicators that determine the quality of the obtained surface are systematized. Researchers' publications on this technological process are analyzed.
  • Publication
    Investigation of Surface Structure in the Laser Marking Process as a Function of Speed and Raster Step
    In this research, an experiment was conducted to change the technological properties of the surface by laser marking. The influence of the speed v of 50 mm/s, 75 mm/s and 100 mm/s and the raster step Δx from 20 µm to 80 µm at a constant average power P = 19.2 W and pulse duration τ = 4 ns was investigated. These parameters during the laser marking of AISI 304L steel have a significant change in microhardness and surface roughness. High hardness was found to be achieved at higher powers and small pitch. Analysis of the results showed that as the raster step increases, the roughness of the marked sample decreases. The effect of linear energy density and overlap factor on the process was also investigated. The microhardness of the machined surfaces increases with an increase in the linear energy density and the overlap coefficient, in the first case the dependence is almost linear, and in the second - nonlinear. Varying the marking speed and raster pitch in laser surface texturing of AISI 304L steel has a significant effect on the surface hardness and roughness, changing HV from 260 HV to 766.5 HV and Ra from 1.75 µm to 4.3 µm, respectively, which are the subject of the present analysis. research.
  • Publication
    Modification of the roughness of 304 stainless steel by laser surface texturing (LST)
    (2023) ; ;
    Nikolay Angelov
    ;
    Emil Yankov
    Surface texturing is one of the most effective approaches to modifying the surface to improve many properties: tribological, corrosion resistance, microhardness and others characteristics of a number of engineering materials. Among the surface texturing techniques developed in recent years, the most widely used method is the laser surface texturing method (LST) due to its high flexibility, superior texturing accuracy and good process controllability and reproducibility. With its rapid development, LST has attracted considerable attention in various industries such as automotive, biomedical and aerospace. The present study considers the changes in roughness in different modes of laser texturing of stainless steel specimens 304. The effects and role of individual laser parameters on the change in roughness are analyzed as a main characteristic of the surface properties of the processed material. Heating and its surface melting is one of the studied effects and its role in changing the roughness. The focus of the study is on the process of laser–material interaction as a function of absorbed energy density, pulse frequency, scan rate, and overlap coefficients leading to different effects of LST parameters. It has been found that increasing the energy density, accompanied by a decrease in the frequency and speed of scanning, can increase the surface roughness.
    Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Numerical modeling and simulation for laser beam welding of ultrafine-grained aluminium
    (2021) ; ;
    Ivo Draganov
    ;
    Nikolay Angelov
    Laser beam welding of aluminium offers huge potential for a wide variety of welding of different thickness parts with the method of thermal conductivity due to the relatively high difference between melting temperature and evaporation. However, due to the high melting temperature and good thermal conductivity of this light metal, the temperature gradients during the welding process are usually high, causing residual stresses in the weld, which can lead to undesirable deterioration of the weld pool properties and the quality of the process. Physical modelling and simulations of the laser welding process are powerful tools for gaining a fundamental understanding of the technological process. They are also a suitable tool for preliminary assessment of the intervals in which the real preliminary experiments for process optimization should take place. This work is devoted to the numerical modelling of the process of welding ultrafine-grained aluminium using a fibre laser. A three-dimensional model of the welding process was created, using the finite element method implemented in the program ABAQUS. The temperature fields at depth z and on the surface x, y in the welded samples is determined. The temperature change as a function of time for different coordinates of the weld is also analysed. During numerical calculations, the power, machining speed and diameter of the workplace are variable. The obtained results are compared with real experiments conducted in the laboratory by other researchers.
    Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Influence of pulse duration on the process of laser marking of CT80 carbon tool steel products
    (2021-02-25) ; ;
    Nikolay Angelov
    Depending on the processing of a particular material, the laser marking process must meet certain requirements. A certain laser peak intensity or fluency must be reached on the treatment surface above which the laser ablation process starts. Some experimental studies have shown that this particular marking threshold is related to many other parameters characterizing the laser source. This requires the realization of an appropriate combination of peak power or pulse energy and the radius of the beam in focus, the frequency of the laser pulses as well as the pulse duration. Achieving high resolution in the marking process requires optimal focusing, and this in turn is associated with the presence of high quality generated and propagated laser radiation. The study concerns the process of laser marking of CT80 carbon tool steel products with wide application in industry. Numerical experiments are performed with specialized software TEMPERATURFELD3D to obtain two-dimensional and three-dimensional temperature fields in the laser impact zone. The influence of the duration of the pulses of fibre laser on the process is investigated. Graphs of the dependence of normalized temperature on time and depth for pulse duration on 10 ns, 100 ns and 1 μs are discussed.
    Scopus© Citations 6
  • Publication
    METHOD FOR PRELIMINARY ESTIMATION OF THE CRITICAL POWER DENSITY IN LASER TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES
    (2019) ;
    Nikolay Angelov
    ;
    For a number of new laser technology processes, it is essential to plan an experimental plan for primary experimental engineering activities in terms of quality. The assessment of the critical power density to reach the melting or evaporation temperature of the surface with a suitable theoretical model is an important stage in the development of a particular manufacturing technology. With the help of numerical experiments, this report provides a method for pre-examining the influence of wavelength on the laser technological process. The calculations are performed with a specialized program, running MATLAB. A series of temperature fields were obtained at a change in power density and wavelength at laser impact for concrete types of structural steel. The temperature dependence of the optical and thermo-physical characteristics of the material is also reporded. The analysis is made for laser technology complexes working with lasers emitting in the ultraviolet, visible, near and distant infrared areas. For these wavelengths the critical power density of melting and evaporation is determined.
    Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    PRELIMINARY NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE ROLE OF SPEED ONTO LASER TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES
    Studying the impact of speed on a number of laser processes such as marking, engraving, cutting, welding and others is crucial for the optimization of these technological processes. The processing speed, along with the frequency of laser pulses and their duration, also determines the time of action in the processing area and hence the absorbed quantity of electromagnetic energy. Based on numerical experiments with specialized software TEMPERATURFELD3D, the report analyzes the temperature variation in the processing area as a function of speed. The researches were analyzed for processing with two types of lasers emitting in the visible and infrared areas of the electromagnetic spectrum and two types of steels (tool and structural). From the course of the obtained temperature fields the dependence of temperature on the speed at two power densities was obtained. The obtained results help to make a preliminary assessment the speed work intervals for the processes as laser marking, laser engraving, laser cutting, laser welding and others. In this way, it is assisted in building an optimal concept for the passing of a particular technological process in function of the laser source, the material and the type of the technological operation.
    Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    METHODOLOGY FOR AUTOMATIC DETERMINATION OF CONTRAST OF LASER MARKING FOR DIFFERENT MATERIALS
    A new methodology for determining and optimizing the contrast of the technological laser marking process has been developed. It can evaluate the quality of the markings regardless of the type of material and the type of laser system. To perform the test analysis, a specialized test field is programmed, which including the change of two of the main parameters influencing the marking process: the linear energy density (LED) and the linear density of the pulses (LDI). Marking of a test field consisting of squares of a certain size is done by means of a raster marking method with a constant step between the lines. The results are processed with a digital camera and specialized software. The maximum blackening is compared with the background of all fields and is juxtaposed with the effective energy needed to obtain a certain contrast. Several consecutive iterations are made, with each of the following experiments excluding the variants with least contrast. Thus, the study consistently brings the result to a minimum working area of the basic technological parameters, providing the user's desired contrast of the marking. The developed author's method of automatically determining the contrast of the laser marking reduces the time for preliminary experimental research and gives a reliable and subjectively absent way of qualitatively marking different types of industrial products.
    Scopus© Citations 6
  • Publication
    LABORATORY EXERCISE TO DETERMINE CONTRAST IN LASER MARKING OF ARTICLES
    (2019) ; ; ;
    Pavel Cacivkin
    ;
    Nikolay Angelov
    ;
    Tsanko Karadzhov
    The laser marking has been established in recent years as one of the modern innovative methods for marking many industrial products. The report examines a new laboratory exercise for the subject Laser Technology, studied in some technical universities. A new approach is proposed to determine the contrast of the laser marking process. Described is the purpose and the main tasks as well as the new skills and knowledge that students can exercise through this laboratory exercise. Students implement a test matrix consisting of squares of a certain size using the raster marking method. Through the new laboratory exercise, students can explore and analyze the dependencies of the contrast of laser markings on different dimensions influencing the technological process. The capabilities of the new approach allow learners to become more familiar with the factors that influence the modern process of laser marking widely used in modern industry. The results of the experiments the students summarize using a new modern digital approach to analyze the contrast against the background of the marked surface. From the experimental graphical dependencies of the variation of the power and speed contrast, they draw conclusions about the optimal process parameters.