- PublicationPLACE NAMES IN THE PHRASEOLOGY OF BALTIC LANGUAGES: INTERNATIONAL, NATIONAL AND LOCAL CULTURAL SIGNS(2016)Contemporary researchers of proper nouns are increasingly paying attention to onym semantics in both theoretical discussions and practical research. Proper nouns, in the same way as foreign language components, are associated with various extralinguistic factors, and it is for this reason that they have been analyzed in culturohistorical, social, and cross-cultural communicative contexts. In addition, research has been conducted in many languages on proper nouns as phraseological structural elements, usually emphasizing the large number and importance of anthroponyms in phraseology. Place names as phraseological unit components of semantics in Latvian and Lithuanian are analyzed in this article using the linguoculturological approach. Latvian and Lithuanian phraseological dictionaries are used in the study as primary source, with a catalogue of Latvian and Lithuanian proverbs utilized as a secondary source, providing a wider insight into phraseology. A catalogue of Lithuanian-Latvian-Lithuanian parallel texts, in addition to online sources, was used to clarify the functionalities of idiomatic expressions.
Contemporary texts are dominated by toponymic phraseologisms, in addition to national cultural signs, while phraseologisms with place names of local interest are used relatively rarely in a given area. Today, discerning the meaning of less current phraseologisms is difficult or impossible; without knowing the motivation of the phraseologisms, their semantics are unclear.
- PublicationMEASUREMENTS OF STUDENTS’ WELLBEING – CASE STUDY IN A LATVIAN PRIVATE SCHOOL(2020)
;Svetlana Usca ;Inta RimsaneCurrently, there is too much emphasis on academic attainment and rankings, and not enough focus on the student wellbeing in basic school. However, the education system (especially in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic) has a significant opportunity to influence the health and habit formation of students who spend the greatest part of the day at school. There have been relatively few studies on student wellbeing in Latvia. The most significant research has been carried out in collaboration with the researchers from the Baltic countries (Estonia, Lithuania). The novelty of this research is related to the development of the theoretically and methodologically based indicators for measuring student wellbeing in an educational institution. The developed indicators will allow the teachers to clarify the situation, draw conclusions and improve the organizational culture. The goal of the research is to find out which indicators reflect the student wellbeing and how to measure them. Based on the study and theoretical findings about the wellbeing indicators there was developed the questionnaire, which consists of self-assessment check list filled by students and evaluation check list filled by parents and teachers. The indicators were united into four wellbeing dimensions: mental wellbeing, cognitive wellbeing, social wellbeing, and physical wellbeing. The following participants filled in the check list and participated in the approbation of the questionnaire: 18 students ages 9-12, 18 parents and 18 teachers. It was suggested to assess the statements related to social, cognitive, physical and mental wellbeing following the Likert scale. The data obtained in the survey was coded and processed in the program SPSS 25.0, using the Frequency test, T-test, ANOVA test. Results indicated that students' sense of wellbeing is changeable. It is influenced by students’ age and gender, and their personal value system. Therefore, measurement of student wellbeing should be done on regular bases. This will allow teachers to create an appropriate environment for the student, as well as to identify problems in a timely manner and, if necessary, start pedagogical correction work.
- PublicationTranscription of foreign personal names in the written works of learners of Latvian as a foreign language(2021)Aim. The aim of this study is to analyse how personal names are transcribed in the written works of Latvian as foreign language learners, as well as the most typical mistakes when transcribing personal names in other languages, the attitude of students towards the Latvianisation of their personal names, and the experience of Latvian language teachers in teaching the principles of transcribing personal names. Methods. The study uses the corpus analysis method, as well as a survey of students and survey of teachers who teach Latvian as a foreign language. The article includes error analysis of the personal name transcription established in the corpus and the analysis of the survey results. Results and conclusion. It was found out that students mostly know how to transcribe their names in Latvian; less frequently do they know how their surname should be transcribed. Their attitude towards Latvianisation of personal names is various: positive, negative or neutral. Latvian as a foreign language teachers emphasize the principle of transcription of foreign personal names and the need to provide its justification in the study process. It was concluded that further Latvian language acquisition process needs to be focused more on the problems with transcription of foreign personal names. Originality. This study highlights the aspect which is little researched in the applied linguistics – the issued linked to transcription of foreign personal names in the process of learning the Latvian language. The novelty is related to the use of a new resource (error-tagged learner corpus) data.
Scopus© Citations 1
- PublicationNAMES OF THE ETHNOGRAPHIC GROUPS IN THE DICTIONARY OF CONTEMPORARY LATVIAN LANGUAGE(2017)Determination of the ethnonymic lexical semantics can be considered as one of the aspects of ethnic studies in linguistics. Who are the Latgalians, Latgals, Suits, Selonians and other ethnographic groups, according to the modern concepts? The answer to this question can be found in the Dictionary of Contemporary Latvian Language (MLVV), which is fully available on the Internet since 2014.The aim of the paper is to analyse the names of Latvian ethnographic groups and the principles of defining meanings in MLVV, especially focusing on issues related to names of Latgalian Latvians. Lexicographic data analysis and contextual approach are applied in this research with the help of which extralinguistic factors (linguistic and situative context) are revealed.One of the most important tasks in lexicographic work is the inventory of the material, in other words, selection of word entries, illustrative texts, collection and classification of information from preceding dictionaries. In the present paper, the electronic version of the eight-volume Dictionary of the Literary Latvian Language (1972–1996) has been used for comparison. The Balanced Corpus of Modern Latvian, consisting of ~4.5 million word use cases, is applied to determine the contextual semantics and the usage frequency of the names of ethnographic groups.MLVV materials show that there is a lack of consequence in the designation of ethnographic groups and definition of their meaning. The names of ethnographic groups (as well as other ethnonyms) as entries are mostly provided in the plural, for instance, latgalieši, suiti, zemgalieši (Latgalians, Suits, inhabitants of Zemgale), etc., some of them in singular forms: kurzemnieks, vidzemnieks (inhabitant of Kurzeme, inhabitant of Vidzeme). In the previously published Dictionary of the Literary Latvian Language, the names are provided in the plural, and the data of the modern Latvian language corpus show that all the analysed lexemes are used in plural form more often.The definitions of the meanings are lacking consistency. Firstly, the scope of definitions is broad: the territorial belonging to a certain Latvian ethnographic region is taken as a basis for all the explanations of the meaning; some definitions have references to linguistic and cultural peculiarity. Secondly, none of definitions has a reference that it is an ethnographic group of Latvians; only in one case, the designation of ethnic origin latvieši (Latvians) is provided. The explanation ‘inhabitants’ (of the region) is applied most often, which indicates the belonging of the lexeme to katoikonyms, not ethnonyms; also, the explanation ‘indigenous inhabitants’ (of the region) indicates indirectly that they might be Latvians.The novelty of the dictionary is that there are two meanings for the lexemes latgaļi (Latgalians) and sēļi (Selonians): the first one characterizes the Baltic tribes, the second – inhabitants/ natives of the cultural historical region (more precisely – ethnographic group of the Latvian nation). At the same time, it is not considered that lexemes latgalieši, kurzemnieki, vidzemnieki, zemgalieši (Latgalians, inhabitants of Kurzeme, Vidzeme, Zemgale) in contemporary Latvian also have at least two meanings: the meaning of ‘ethnographic group of the nation’ in modern texts, especially in the media, is complemented by a more general meaning of ‘inhabitant of the region’, in other words, the ethnonym becomes a katoikonym.The advantage of the electronic dictionary of contemporary Latvian is the possibility to edit it constantly; therefore, it is worth to pay attention to separate lexical semantic groups when developing the dictionary. In that way, it will be possible to avoid inconsistency in definitions of meanings. In order to separate ethnonyms from katoikonyms, in the definitions of the ethnonyms analysed in the paper, the designation of ethnic community ‘ethnographic group of Latvian nation’ can be applied as the main component, supplemented by semes indicating the connection with a certain territory, and possibly, the characterization of cultural, religious and linguistic peculiarity.
- PublicationFactors in the development of smart villages regarding tourism in the Baltic states(2023)
;Iveta Dembovska ; ;Zanda Dimanta-SvilpeAsta RaupelieneThis study aims to examine the nature of smart villages and the factors in their development in relation to the tourism industry in the Baltic states. This research employed theoretical literature analysis to conceptualize the factors contributing to smart village development, discourse analysis (analysis of good smart village branding practice), a qualitative approach and descriptive analysis to analyse semi-structured expert survey e-questionnaires to identify the nature of smart villages, as well as to analyse factors in the development of smart villages in relation to tourism in the Baltic states. Specialists who represent tourism, other businesses and the discipline of economics were chosen as experts. The experts indicated that the development of smart villages can contribute to essential and important factors in the development of tourism such as the growth of a creative economy, the development of community culture, values, traditions and symbols, the production of local food, the establishment of unique natural, cultural and recreational objects, as well as improvement in infrastructure and the introduction of new technologies. The study contributes to an understanding of the development of smart villages, given the important factors that were examined. The smart village approach is a relatively new approach to sustainable rural development and tourism promotion. In Europe, it is a better-known approach to developing local areas and tourism, yet each region has its own distinctive features. Scopus© Citations 1
- PublicationLATGALIAN JOKES: EXPRESSIONS OF LINGUISTIC CONTACTS(2012)The research interest of the author of the article in the ethnosis living in Latgale, intercultural communication is related to the compilation of the entries for „Latgalian Linguo-Territorial Dictionary” with ESF project „Linguo-Cultural and Socio-Economic Aspects of Territorial Identity in the Development of the Region of Latgale” (Nr. 2009/0227/1DP/184.108.40.206.0/09/APIA/VIAA/071). The tasks of this research: 1) to prepare a review about the frequency of linguistic contacts and themes for conversations in jokes; 2) to determine the linguistic attitude of the addressee and the sender; 3) to trace linguistic processes in the event of intercultural communication.</p><p>The theoretical background of the research is based on the speech act in theory (J. Searle), highlighting the impact of social and historical factors on the speech act (D. Hymes). In order to describe the results of linguistic contacts linguistic, social and historical factors shall be taken into consideration. Jokes (131 unit in total) have been selected according to the following components of the speech act: form of message – dialogue; sender and addressee – Latvians and non-ethnic Latvians (Russians, Poles, Jews, Gypsies, etc.) of Latgale and representatives of other regions; communication channel – oral and written communication; code – patois, dialect, language; theme – daily life, culture, religion, politics etc.; situation – Latgale of 20th century (episodically – Latvia, Russia, Germany, USA, Lithuania).</p><p>The analysis of the expressions of language contacts in the texts of jokes lets conclude how intensive the mutual contacts of various languages and their users were in Latgale in the 20th century: if in the first half of the century the linguistic contacts were extremely diverse (interaction of Latgalian Latvians, Russians, Jews, Gypsies, Polish), then in the second half of the century mostly the linguistic contacts of Latvian (Latgalian) and Russian speaking population were domineering under the impact of the russification policy.</p><p>The result of linguistic contacts are: 1) a tolerant attitude towards other languages and their users is typical for a Latgalian (character of jokes), but he/she has a negative position to an strange language (Latvian, Russian) as an expression of enforced power; 2) in the communication process one can observe intentional of code-switching and unintentional of code-mixing (basis of the comic: interlinguistic homonyms, homoforms); 3) linguistic interference: phonetic, lexical and grammatical borrowings (from Latvian, Russian, English); 4) foreign language skills (in the beginning of 20th century the modest foreigner language skills led to more frequent misunderstandings).</p><p>The achievement of the aim put forward, result is a significant component of the speech act. The analyzed material of jokes proves that in many communicative situations this aim is not reached due to the weak communicative competence of the addressee and addresser (lack of awareness, understanding and recognition of the linguistic and cultural features of the representative of another ethos). Therefore, a conversation takes place, but an intercultural dialogue is not formed. Under current complex economic, political and linguistic situation in Latvia these are significant reasons for splitting of the society.
- PublicationThe Image of the German, the Pole, the Latvian, and the Lithuanian in Lithuanian and Latvian Folklore(2021)
;Laima AnglickienėIn multi-ethnic societies, one way in which ethnicity manifests itself is in classifying people according to their ethnic origin. Such classification is based on stereotyping and is typically achieved by emphasizing certain common characteristics rather than individual particularities. Both lived experience and folklore corroborate the fact that ethnic stereotypes, ethnic self-awareness, and identity are also influenced by historical circumstances. This article focuses on Lithuanians’ and Latvians’ attitudes towards Poles and Germans, and towards one another during the period between the eighteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries. The aim of this article is to reveal how the folklore of the two neighbouring nations, Lithuanians and Latvians, depicts the aforementioned ethnic groups; what historical events, cultural and social factors determined the similarities and differences in their portrayal in Lithuanian and Latvian folklore.
- PublicationNezinātniski priekšstati par poļu valodu Latgalē [pol. Nienaukowe poglądy na język polski w Łatgalii](2019)Apzīmējumam „nezinātniski priekšstati” jebkura pētījuma kontekstā ir šķietami negatīva semantika, proti, tas ir priekšstatu kopums, kam nav zinātniska pamata. Taču, no otras puses, apzīmējums „nezinātniski priekšstati” ir saistāms ar mūsdienu lingvistikā aktuālu pieeju, ko dēvē par folklinvistiku. Raksta mērķis ir atklāt latgaliešu (nespeciālistu) priekšstatus par poļu valodu, tās būtību un statusu senatnē un mūsdienās. Pētījuma avoti ir latgaliešu folkloras teksti, mūsdienu latgaliešu tekstu korpuss (MuLa), kā arī Latgales iedzīvotāju intervijas. Izmantojot folklingvistikas teorētiskās atziņas un metodoloģiju, minētajos avotos noteikts un salīdzināts: 1) kādi priekšstati par poļu valodas būtību un statusu ir pausti folklorā, mūsdienu latgaliešu rakstveida tekstos un nespeciālistu (nevalodnieku) intervijās; 2) kāda lingvistiskā attieksme pret poļu valodu pausta dažādos latgaliešu valodas tekstos. Pētījuma gaitā nonākts pie atziņas, ka folkloras, daiļliteratūras un publicistikas teksti, kā arī interviju dati apliecina poļu valodas ilglaicīgu klātbūtni Latgales teritorijā. Saskarsme ar poļu valodu ir notikusi un notiek gan makrovidē (katoļu baznīca, izglītība, sabiedriski pasākumi, poļu kultūras biedrības), gan mikrovidē (saziņa ar kaimiņiem, poļu izcelsmes radiniekiem). Folkloras tekstos, kas atspoguļo senāku lingvistisko sakaru slāni, izpratnē par poļu valodu spilgtāk izpaužas opozīcija “mēs – viņi” (sociālā nevienlīdzība, poļu valodas prestižs). Latgaliešu daiļliteratūra spilgtāk atklāj vēsturisko kontekstu: latgaliešiem poļu valodas prasme – a) iespēja izglītoties, “izrauties” no zemnieku kārtas; b) draudi zaudēt savu identitāti. Publicistikā un intervijās tiek atklātas poļu valodas funkcionēšanas sfēras mūsdienās, kā arī tās “izzušanas” tendences. Valodas raksturojumā tiek izmantots salīdzinājums ar citām zināmajām (galvenokārt slāvu) valodām, pausta gan pozitīva, gan negatīva, gan neitrāla lingvistskā attieksme.
- PublicationETHNONYMS IN THE SYSTEM OF PROPER NAMES OF LATGALE(2013)Proper names, including ethnonyms (folk, tribal and other ethnic community names), is an essential component of any language lexis, which particularly brightly reveals a variety ofextralinguistic processes. The aim of the paper is to analyze the conformity of ethnonym transonymization (the change of proper name class) and deonymization (the change of proper name into appellative) in the culture of Latgale, and linguistic techniques and extralinguistic factors. Linguo-culturological approach has been used in the research, and the link between cultural-historical and social processes in the research of linguistic processes has been taken into account. Determining the origin of ancient ethnonyms, the researchers of the Baltic languages acknowledge a transonymization model typical to the Balts: hydronym → name of region→ ethnonym (Zinkevičius 2005, 186–187). This paper attempts to reveal various ethnonym (denoting mostly foreigners) transonymization models in the system of proper names of Latgale, nominating motivation, and the types of word-formation. It seems that the ethnonyms that denote the neighbouring nations (Estonians, Lithuanians, Russians) most frequently turn into other proper names. Transonymization models have been identifi ed as follows: 1) ethnonym → anthroponym → oikonym (or ethnonym → oikonym → anthroponym), for example, l ī t a u n ī k i ‘the Lithuanians’ → L ī t a u n ī k s ‘a surname’ → L ī t a u n ī k i ‘a village in Preiļi county’; 2) ethnonym → microtoponym, for example, ž y d i ‘the Jews’ → Ž y d a p ū r s ‘a marsh in Vārkava county’; 3) ethnonym → anthroponym, for example, č y g u o n i ‘the Roma people’ →Č y g u o n s ‘a nickname for a dark-haired man’; 4) ethnonym (→ oikonym) → ergonym, for example, l a t g a ļ i ‘The Baltic tribe’ → “L a t g a ļ i” ‘a farm in Mērdzene rural municipality of Kārsava county’. Transonymization of ethnonyms in the culture of Latgale is motivated by historical
and social processes. Transonymization processes present the evidence of Latgalians’ stereotypical perception of foreigners, compact settlement of different ethnic groups in Latgale, and historical events. Various types of word-formation are used in the transonymization process: 1) semantic, i.e., only the meaning changes, the morphemic system of lexeme is notchanged, for example, ethnonym p o ļ a k i → oikonym P o ļ a k i (→ surname P o ļ a k s (the male singular form of the ethnonym)); 2) morphological, typically suffixes are added to ethnonyms (sometimes phonetic changes in the root occur), for example, i g a u n i ‘the Estonians’ → surnames I k a u n ī k s (ikaun-+-nīk-s); I g o v e n s (igov-+ - en-s); 3) syntactical, forming compound words, for example, the ethnonym k r ī v i ‘the Russians’ has motivated the oikonym K r ī v a s o l a <Krīva sola ‘Russian Village’, K r ī v m a i z e s <Krīvu maizes ‘Russian bread’; 4) formation of analytical forms, where one of the components has ethnonymic
semantics and the second component is a nomenclature word (hill, meadow, marsh, lake,
etc.), for example, Ž y d a p ū r s ‘Jew’s marsh’, an attributive adjective, for example, a
village M a z i e L ī t a u n ī k i ‘small Lithuanians’, a substantive of other semantics, for
example, a meadow Č i g o n e i c a s j ū s t a ‘Gypsy’s belt’.
Proper names of foreign origin motivated by ethnonyms have taken their stable
place in the system of proper names of Latgale, for example, L a t i š i, a village in Pušmucova
rural municipality of Cibla civil-parish (in Russian латыши ‘the Latvians’).
Proper names of ethnonymic semantics, used to name various phenomena and
realities, are often included in the lexicon of various dialects of Latvian and even other
languages. If to assume the fact that ethnonyms are proper names, then it can be concluded
that the appellatives mentioned above have appeared in deonymization process: ethnonym
→ appellative. Moreover, the material of Latgalian dialects confirms the existence of deethnonymic
proper names, for example, a lot of different realities are associated with the
ethnonyms denoting Roma people: č y g u o n i ‘participants of masquerade parade’;
č y g o n k a 1) a sort of winter apples, the apple of this sort (dark green and red); 2) the railroad;
3) achimenes (flower, Achimenes); 4) mushrooms: wild champignon (Rozites caperata) or
ugly milkcap (Lactarius necator); č y g u o n a s a u l e ‘the moon’. Appellativeness of
ethnonyms has an associative character. The names are reflecting the Latgalians’ stereotypical
perception of appearance, occupation, character traits, and traditions of foreigners as alien and different, however, acceptable and assimilable phenomena.